/** * A simple set of functions to check our version 1.0 update service. * * @package WordPress * @since 2.3.0 */ /** * Check WordPress version against the newest version. * * The WordPress version, PHP version, and Locale is sent. Checks against the * WordPress server at api.wordpress.org server. Will only check if WordPress * isn't installing. * * @since 2.3.0 * @uses $wp_version Used to check against the newest WordPress version. * * @param array $extra_stats Extra statistics to report to the WordPress.org API. * @param bool $force_check Whether to bypass the transient cache and force a fresh update check. Defaults to false, true if $extra_stats is set. * @return mixed Returns null if update is unsupported. Returns false if check is too soon. */ function wp_version_check( $extra_stats = array(), $force_check = false ) { if ( defined('WP_INSTALLING') ) return; global $wpdb, $wp_local_package; include( ABSPATH . WPINC . '/version.php' ); // include an unmodified $wp_version $php_version = phpversion(); $current = get_site_transient( 'update_core' ); $translations = wp_get_installed_translations( 'core' ); // Invalidate the transient when $wp_version changes if ( is_object( $current ) && $wp_version != $current->version_checked ) $current = false; if ( ! is_object($current) ) { $current = new stdClass; $current->updates = array(); $current->version_checked = $wp_version; } if ( ! empty( $extra_stats ) ) $force_check = true; // Wait 60 seconds between multiple version check requests $timeout = 60; $time_not_changed = isset( $current->last_checked ) && $timeout > ( time() - $current->last_checked ); if ( ! $force_check && $time_not_changed ) return false; $locale = get_locale(); /** * Filter the locale requested for WordPress core translations. * * @since 2.8.0 * * @param string $locale Current locale. */ $locale = apply_filters( 'core_version_check_locale', $locale ); // Update last_checked for current to prevent multiple blocking requests if request hangs $current->last_checked = time(); set_site_transient( 'update_core', $current ); if ( method_exists( $wpdb, 'db_version' ) ) $mysql_version = preg_replace('/[^0-9.].*/', '', $wpdb->db_version()); else $mysql_version = 'N/A'; if ( is_multisite() ) { $user_count = get_user_count(); $num_blogs = get_blog_count(); $wp_install = network_site_url(); $multisite_enabled = 1; } else { $user_count = count_users(); $user_count = $user_count['total_users']; $multisite_enabled = 0; $num_blogs = 1; $wp_install = home_url( '/' ); } $query = array( 'version' => $wp_version, 'php' => $php_version, 'locale' => $locale, 'mysql' => $mysql_version, 'local_package' => isset( $wp_local_package ) ? $wp_local_package : '', 'blogs' => $num_blogs, 'users' => $user_count, 'multisite_enabled' => $multisite_enabled, ); $post_body = array( 'translations' => json_encode( $translations ), ); if ( is_array( $extra_stats ) ) $post_body = array_merge( $post_body, $extra_stats ); $url = $http_url = 'http://api.wordpress.org/core/version-check/1.7/?' . http_build_query( $query, null, '&' ); if ( $ssl = wp_http_supports( array( 'ssl' ) ) ) $url = set_url_scheme( $url, 'https' ); $options = array( 'timeout' => ( ( defined('DOING_CRON') && DOING_CRON ) ? 30 : 3 ), 'user-agent' => 'WordPress/' . $wp_version . '; ' . home_url( '/' ), 'headers' => array( 'wp_install' => $wp_install, 'wp_blog' => home_url( '/' ) ), 'body' => $post_body, ); $response = wp_remote_post( $url, $options ); if ( $ssl && is_wp_error( $response ) ) { trigger_error( __( 'An unexpected error occurred. Something may be wrong with WordPress.org or this server’s configuration. If you continue to have problems, please try the support forums.' ) . ' ' . __( '(WordPress could not establish a secure connection to WordPress.org. Please contact your server administrator.)' ), headers_sent() || WP_DEBUG ? E_USER_WARNING : E_USER_NOTICE ); $response = wp_remote_post( $http_url, $options ); } if ( is_wp_error( $response ) || 200 != wp_remote_retrieve_response_code( $response ) ) return false; $body = trim( wp_remote_retrieve_body( $response ) ); $body = json_decode( $body, true ); if ( ! is_array( $body ) || ! isset( $body['offers'] ) ) return false; $offers = $body['offers']; foreach ( $offers as &$offer ) { foreach ( $offer as $offer_key => $value ) { if ( 'packages' == $offer_key ) $offer['packages'] = (object) array_intersect_key( array_map( 'esc_url', $offer['packages'] ), array_fill_keys( array( 'full', 'no_content', 'new_bundled', 'partial', 'rollback' ), '' ) ); elseif ( 'download' == $offer_key ) $offer['download'] = esc_url( $value ); else $offer[ $offer_key ] = esc_html( $value ); } $offer = (object) array_intersect_key( $offer, array_fill_keys( array( 'response', 'download', 'locale', 'packages', 'current', 'version', 'php_version', 'mysql_version', 'new_bundled', 'partial_version', 'notify_email', 'support_email' ), '' ) ); } $updates = new stdClass(); $updates->updates = $offers; $updates->last_checked = time(); $updates->version_checked = $wp_version; if ( isset( $body['translations'] ) ) $updates->translations = $body['translations']; set_site_transient( 'update_core', $updates ); if ( ! empty( $body['ttl'] ) ) { $ttl = (int) $body['ttl']; if ( $ttl && ( time() + $ttl < wp_next_scheduled( 'wp_version_check' ) ) ) { // Queue an event to re-run the update check in $ttl seconds. wp_schedule_single_event( time() + $ttl, 'wp_version_check' ); } } // Trigger a background updates check if running non-interactively, and we weren't called from the update handler. if ( defined( 'DOING_CRON' ) && DOING_CRON && ! doing_action( 'wp_maybe_auto_update' ) ) { do_action( 'wp_maybe_auto_update' ); } } /** * Check plugin versions against the latest versions hosted on WordPress.org. * * The WordPress version, PHP version, and Locale is sent along with a list of * all plugins installed. Checks against the WordPress server at * api.wordpress.org. Will only check if WordPress isn't installing. * * @since 2.3.0 * @uses $wp_version Used to notify the WordPress version. * * @param array $extra_stats Extra statistics to report to the WordPress.org API. * @return mixed Returns null if update is unsupported. Returns false if check is too soon. */ function wp_update_plugins( $extra_stats = array() ) { include( ABSPATH . WPINC . '/version.php' ); // include an unmodified $wp_version if ( defined('WP_INSTALLING') ) return false; // If running blog-side, bail unless we've not checked in the last 12 hours if ( !function_exists( 'get_plugins' ) ) require_once( ABSPATH . 'wp-admin/includes/plugin.php' ); $plugins = get_plugins(); $translations = wp_get_installed_translations( 'plugins' ); $active = get_option( 'active_plugins', array() ); $current = get_site_transient( 'update_plugins' ); if ( ! is_object($current) ) $current = new stdClass; $new_option = new stdClass; $new_option->last_checked = time(); // Check for update on a different schedule, depending on the page. switch ( current_filter() ) { case 'upgrader_process_complete' : $timeout = 0; break; case 'load-update-core.php' : $timeout = MINUTE_IN_SECONDS; break; case 'load-plugins.php' : case 'load-update.php' : $timeout = HOUR_IN_SECONDS; break; default : if ( defined( 'DOING_CRON' ) && DOING_CRON ) { $timeout = 0; } else { $timeout = 12 * HOUR_IN_SECONDS; } } $time_not_changed = isset( $current->last_checked ) && $timeout > ( time() - $current->last_checked ); if ( $time_not_changed && ! $extra_stats ) { $plugin_changed = false; foreach ( $plugins as $file => $p ) { $new_option->checked[ $file ] = $p['Version']; if ( !isset( $current->checked[ $file ] ) || strval($current->checked[ $file ]) !== strval($p['Version']) ) $plugin_changed = true; } if ( isset ( $current->response ) && is_array( $current->response ) ) { foreach ( $current->response as $plugin_file => $update_details ) { if ( ! isset($plugins[ $plugin_file ]) ) { $plugin_changed = true; break; } } } // Bail if we've checked recently and if nothing has changed if ( ! $plugin_changed ) return false; } // Update last_checked for current to prevent multiple blocking requests if request hangs $current->last_checked = time(); set_site_transient( 'update_plugins', $current ); $to_send = compact( 'plugins', 'active' ); $locales = array( get_locale() ); /** * Filter the locales requested for plugin translations. * * @since 3.7.0 * * @param array $locales Plugin locale. Default is current locale of the site. */ $locales = apply_filters( 'plugins_update_check_locales', $locales ); if ( defined( 'DOING_CRON' ) && DOING_CRON ) { $timeout = 30; } else { // Three seconds, plus one extra second for every 10 plugins $timeout = 3 + (int) ( count( $plugins ) / 10 ); } $options = array( 'timeout' => $timeout, 'body' => array( 'plugins' => json_encode( $to_send ), 'translations' => json_encode( $translations ), 'locale' => json_encode( $locales ), 'all' => json_encode( true ), ), 'user-agent' => 'WordPress/' . $wp_version . '; ' . get_bloginfo( 'url' ) ); if ( $extra_stats ) { $options['body']['update_stats'] = json_encode( $extra_stats ); } $url = $http_url = 'http://api.wordpress.org/plugins/update-check/1.1/'; if ( $ssl = wp_http_supports( array( 'ssl' ) ) ) $url = set_url_scheme( $url, 'https' ); $raw_response = wp_remote_post( $url, $options ); if ( $ssl && is_wp_error( $raw_response ) ) { trigger_error( __( 'An unexpected error occurred. Something may be wrong with WordPress.org or this server’s configuration. If you continue to have problems, please try the support forums.' ) . ' ' . __( '(WordPress could not establish a secure connection to WordPress.org. Please contact your server administrator.)' ), headers_sent() || WP_DEBUG ? E_USER_WARNING : E_USER_NOTICE ); $raw_response = wp_remote_post( $http_url, $options ); } if ( is_wp_error( $raw_response ) || 200 != wp_remote_retrieve_response_code( $raw_response ) ) return false; $response = json_decode( wp_remote_retrieve_body( $raw_response ), true ); foreach ( $response['plugins'] as &$plugin ) { $plugin = (object) $plugin; } unset( $plugin ); foreach ( $response['no_update'] as &$plugin ) { $plugin = (object) $plugin; } unset( $plugin ); if ( is_array( $response ) ) { $new_option->response = $response['plugins']; $new_option->translations = $response['translations']; // TODO: Perhaps better to store no_update in a separate transient with an expiry? $new_option->no_update = $response['no_update']; } else { $new_option->response = array(); $new_option->translations = array(); $new_option->no_update = array(); } set_site_transient( 'update_plugins', $new_option ); } /** * Check theme versions against the latest versions hosted on WordPress.org. * * A list of all themes installed in sent to WP. Checks against the * WordPress server at api.wordpress.org. Will only check if WordPress isn't * installing. * * @since 2.7.0 * @uses $wp_version Used to notify the WordPress version. * * @param array $extra_stats Extra statistics to report to the WordPress.org API. * @return mixed Returns null if update is unsupported. Returns false if check is too soon. */ function wp_update_themes( $extra_stats = array() ) { include( ABSPATH . WPINC . '/version.php' ); // include an unmodified $wp_version if ( defined( 'WP_INSTALLING' ) ) return false; $installed_themes = wp_get_themes(); $translations = wp_get_installed_translations( 'themes' ); $last_update = get_site_transient( 'update_themes' ); if ( ! is_object($last_update) ) $last_update = new stdClass; $themes = $checked = $request = array(); // Put slug of current theme into request. $request['active'] = get_option( 'stylesheet' ); foreach ( $installed_themes as $theme ) { $checked[ $theme->get_stylesheet() ] = $theme->get('Version'); $themes[ $theme->get_stylesheet() ] = array( 'Name' => $theme->get('Name'), 'Title' => $theme->get('Name'), 'Version' => $theme->get('Version'), 'Author' => $theme->get('Author'), 'Author URI' => $theme->get('AuthorURI'), 'Template' => $theme->get_template(), 'Stylesheet' => $theme->get_stylesheet(), ); } // Check for update on a different schedule, depending on the page. switch ( current_filter() ) { case 'upgrader_process_complete' : $timeout = 0; break; case 'load-update-core.php' : $timeout = MINUTE_IN_SECONDS; break; case 'load-themes.php' : case 'load-update.php' : $timeout = HOUR_IN_SECONDS; break; default : if ( defined( 'DOING_CRON' ) && DOING_CRON ) { $timeout = 0; } else { $timeout = 12 * HOUR_IN_SECONDS; } } $time_not_changed = isset( $last_update->last_checked ) && $timeout > ( time() - $last_update->last_checked ); if ( $time_not_changed && ! $extra_stats ) { $theme_changed = false; foreach ( $checked as $slug => $v ) { if ( !isset( $last_update->checked[ $slug ] ) || strval($last_update->checked[ $slug ]) !== strval($v) ) $theme_changed = true; } if ( isset ( $last_update->response ) && is_array( $last_update->response ) ) { foreach ( $last_update->response as $slug => $update_details ) { if ( ! isset($checked[ $slug ]) ) { $theme_changed = true; break; } } } // Bail if we've checked recently and if nothing has changed if ( ! $theme_changed ) return false; } // Update last_checked for current to prevent multiple blocking requests if request hangs $last_update->last_checked = time(); set_site_transient( 'update_themes', $last_update ); $request['themes'] = $themes; $locales = array( get_locale() ); /** * Filter the locales requested for theme translations. * * @since 3.7.0 * * @param array $locales Theme locale. Default is current locale of the site. */ $locales = apply_filters( 'themes_update_check_locales', $locales ); if ( defined( 'DOING_CRON' ) && DOING_CRON ) { $timeout = 30; } else { // Three seconds, plus one extra second for every 10 themes $timeout = 3 + (int) ( count( $themes ) / 10 ); } $options = array( 'timeout' => $timeout, 'body' => array( 'themes' => json_encode( $request ), 'translations' => json_encode( $translations ), 'locale' => json_encode( $locales ), ), 'user-agent' => 'WordPress/' . $wp_version . '; ' . get_bloginfo( 'url' ) ); if ( $extra_stats ) { $options['body']['update_stats'] = json_encode( $extra_stats ); } $url = $http_url = 'http://api.wordpress.org/themes/update-check/1.1/'; if ( $ssl = wp_http_supports( array( 'ssl' ) ) ) $url = set_url_scheme( $url, 'https' ); $raw_response = wp_remote_post( $url, $options ); if ( $ssl && is_wp_error( $raw_response ) ) { trigger_error( __( 'An unexpected error occurred. Something may be wrong with WordPress.org or this server’s configuration. If you continue to have problems, please try the support forums.' ) . ' ' . __( '(WordPress could not establish a secure connection to WordPress.org. Please contact your server administrator.)' ), headers_sent() || WP_DEBUG ? E_USER_WARNING : E_USER_NOTICE ); $raw_response = wp_remote_post( $http_url, $options ); } if ( is_wp_error( $raw_response ) || 200 != wp_remote_retrieve_response_code( $raw_response ) ) return false; $new_update = new stdClass; $new_update->last_checked = time(); $new_update->checked = $checked; $response = json_decode( wp_remote_retrieve_body( $raw_response ), true ); if ( is_array( $response ) ) { $new_update->response = $response['themes']; $new_update->translations = $response['translations']; } set_site_transient( 'update_themes', $new_update ); } /** * Performs WordPress automatic background updates. * * @since 3.7.0 */ function wp_maybe_auto_update() { include_once( ABSPATH . '/wp-admin/includes/admin.php' ); include_once( ABSPATH . '/wp-admin/includes/class-wp-upgrader.php' ); $upgrader = new WP_Automatic_Updater; $upgrader->run(); } /** * Retrieves a list of all language updates available. * * @since 3.7.0 */ function wp_get_translation_updates() { $updates = array(); $transients = array( 'update_core' => 'core', 'update_plugins' => 'plugin', 'update_themes' => 'theme' ); foreach ( $transients as $transient => $type ) { $transient = get_site_transient( $transient ); if ( empty( $transient->translations ) ) continue; foreach ( $transient->translations as $translation ) { $updates[] = (object) $translation; } } return $updates; } /** * Collect counts and UI strings for available updates * * @since 3.3.0 * * @return array */ function wp_get_update_data() { $counts = array( 'plugins' => 0, 'themes' => 0, 'wordpress' => 0, 'translations' => 0 ); if ( $plugins = current_user_can( 'update_plugins' ) ) { $update_plugins = get_site_transient( 'update_plugins' ); if ( ! empty( $update_plugins->response ) ) $counts['plugins'] = count( $update_plugins->response ); } if ( $themes = current_user_can( 'update_themes' ) ) { $update_themes = get_site_transient( 'update_themes' ); if ( ! empty( $update_themes->response ) ) $counts['themes'] = count( $update_themes->response ); } if ( ( $core = current_user_can( 'update_core' ) ) && function_exists( 'get_core_updates' ) ) { $update_wordpress = get_core_updates( array('dismissed' => false) ); if ( ! empty( $update_wordpress ) && ! in_array( $update_wordpress[0]->response, array('development', 'latest') ) && current_user_can('update_core') ) $counts['wordpress'] = 1; } if ( ( $core || $plugins || $themes ) && wp_get_translation_updates() ) $counts['translations'] = 1; $counts['total'] = $counts['plugins'] + $counts['themes'] + $counts['wordpress'] + $counts['translations']; $titles = array(); if ( $counts['wordpress'] ) $titles['wordpress'] = sprintf( __( '%d WordPress Update'), $counts['wordpress'] ); if ( $counts['plugins'] ) $titles['plugins'] = sprintf( _n( '%d Plugin Update', '%d Plugin Updates', $counts['plugins'] ), $counts['plugins'] ); if ( $counts['themes'] ) $titles['themes'] = sprintf( _n( '%d Theme Update', '%d Theme Updates', $counts['themes'] ), $counts['themes'] ); if ( $counts['translations'] ) $titles['translations'] = __( 'Translation Updates' ); $update_title = $titles ? esc_attr( implode( ', ', $titles ) ) : ''; $update_data = array( 'counts' => $counts, 'title' => $update_title ); /** * Filter the returned array of update data for plugins, themes, and WordPress core. * * @since 3.5.0 * * @param array $update_data { * Fetched update data. * * @type array $counts An array of counts for available plugin, theme, and WordPress updates. * @type string $update_title Titles of available updates. * } * @param array $titles An array of update counts and UI strings for available updates. */ return apply_filters( 'wp_get_update_data', $update_data, $titles ); } function _maybe_update_core() { include( ABSPATH . WPINC . '/version.php' ); // include an unmodified $wp_version $current = get_site_transient( 'update_core' ); if ( isset( $current->last_checked ) && 12 * HOUR_IN_SECONDS > ( time() - $current->last_checked ) && isset( $current->version_checked ) && $current->version_checked == $wp_version ) return; wp_version_check(); } /** * Check the last time plugins were run before checking plugin versions. * * This might have been backported to WordPress 2.6.1 for performance reasons. * This is used for the wp-admin to check only so often instead of every page * load. * * @since 2.7.0 * @access private */ function _maybe_update_plugins() { $current = get_site_transient( 'update_plugins' ); if ( isset( $current->last_checked ) && 12 * HOUR_IN_SECONDS > ( time() - $current->last_checked ) ) return; wp_update_plugins(); } /** * Check themes versions only after a duration of time. * * This is for performance reasons to make sure that on the theme version * checker is not run on every page load. * * @since 2.7.0 * @access private */ function _maybe_update_themes() { $current = get_site_transient( 'update_themes' ); if ( isset( $current->last_checked ) && 12 * HOUR_IN_SECONDS > ( time() - $current->last_checked ) ) return; wp_update_themes(); } /** * Schedule core, theme, and plugin update checks. * * @since 3.1.0 */ function wp_schedule_update_checks() { if ( !wp_next_scheduled('wp_version_check') && !defined('WP_INSTALLING') ) wp_schedule_event(time(), 'twicedaily', 'wp_version_check'); if ( !wp_next_scheduled('wp_update_plugins') && !defined('WP_INSTALLING') ) wp_schedule_event(time(), 'twicedaily', 'wp_update_plugins'); if ( !wp_next_scheduled('wp_update_themes') && !defined('WP_INSTALLING') ) wp_schedule_event(time(), 'twicedaily', 'wp_update_themes'); if ( ( wp_next_scheduled( 'wp_maybe_auto_update' ) > ( time() + HOUR_IN_SECONDS ) ) && ! defined('WP_INSTALLING') ) wp_clear_scheduled_hook( 'wp_maybe_auto_update' ); } if ( ( ! is_main_site() && ! is_network_admin() ) || ( defined( 'DOING_AJAX' ) && DOING_AJAX ) ) return; add_action( 'admin_init', '_maybe_update_core' ); add_action( 'wp_version_check', 'wp_version_check' ); add_action( 'upgrader_process_complete', 'wp_version_check', 10, 0 ); add_action( 'load-plugins.php', 'wp_update_plugins' ); add_action( 'load-update.php', 'wp_update_plugins' ); add_action( 'load-update-core.php', 'wp_update_plugins' ); add_action( 'admin_init', '_maybe_update_plugins' ); add_action( 'wp_update_plugins', 'wp_update_plugins' ); add_action( 'upgrader_process_complete', 'wp_update_plugins', 10, 0 ); add_action( 'load-themes.php', 'wp_update_themes' ); add_action( 'load-update.php', 'wp_update_themes' ); add_action( 'load-update-core.php', 'wp_update_themes' ); add_action( 'admin_init', '_maybe_update_themes' ); add_action( 'wp_update_themes', 'wp_update_themes' ); add_action( 'upgrader_process_complete', 'wp_update_themes', 10, 0 ); add_action( 'wp_maybe_auto_update', 'wp_maybe_auto_update' ); add_action('init', 'wp_schedule_update_checks'); El legado de Ballmer al frente de Microsoft: sonoros fracasos y silenciosos aciertosSesiónDeControl.com
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El legado de Ballmer


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Hemerotek

Hemerotek.com es un blog sobre tecnoeconomía. En este espacio podrás encontrar noticias y análisis a diario sobre tecnología y economía.


Escrito el 12 de septiembre de 2013 a las 19:12 | Clasificado en Economía, Tecnología

Steve Ballmer dejará su cargo en Microsoft en los próximos doce meses. Su gestión en el gigante tecnológico se ha caracterizado por obtener sonoros fracasos y silenciosos aciertos.

Steve Ballmer y la evolución de los resultados en los últimos años (fiscales) de Microsoft. (Hemerotek)
Steve Ballmer y la evolución de los resultados en los últimos años (fiscales) de Microsoft. (Hemerotek)

 

Steve Ballmer se convirtió en 1980 en el empleado número 30 de Microsoft, una pequeña ‘startup’ de software fundada por Bill Gates y Paul Allen. Casi 18 años más tarde sustituyó al propio Gates como consejero delegado de la compañía en la cima más alta posible: una posición de casi monopolio que ‘obligó‘ a rescatar a su inmediato rival Apple con una inyección de capital un año antes, en 1997.

Ballmer pasó entonces a dirigir un gigante construido en torno al sistema operativo Windows, las herramientas ofimáticas de Office y el navegador Internet Explorer. En el año 2000, Microsoft alcanzó un valor en bolsa de 650.000 millones de dólares. El ejecutivo nacido en Detroit era entonces el ejecutivo más poderoso e influyente del mundo, el cerebro de una máquina de ganar dinero y sorprender al mundo con sus lanzamientos de producto.

Desde ese trono absoluto comenzó a producirse un cierto declive, alimentado por algo tan humano como el orgullo y la prepotencia, que le llevaron a infravalorar a la competencia. También, por supuesto, los procesos antimonopolio en EEUU y Europa, que frenaron la marcha de la compañía. Primero fue Google, quien comenzó a minar el dominio en Internet y en el software de Microsoft. Luego Apple y Amazon. Más tarde, decenas de ‘startups’ o competidores pasaron por la derecha y por la izquierda a Microsoft con distintos productos.

Una gestión llena de grandes errores

Ballmer deja tras de sí una lista de sonoros fracasos como Windows Vista, el reproductor digital de música Zune, el buscador Bing o el cierre de Hotmail y Messenger, servicios que una vez dominaron el mercado. También se ha apuntado aciertos como la compra de Skype, la creación del gigante del entretenimiento en torno a Xbox-Kinect o la potente apuesta por el ‘cloud computing’. Quizá el mayor de los errores que se le recuerdan fue el desprecio ante el lanzamiento del iPhone en 2007, cuando aseguró que no veía mucho futuro en un dispositivo sin teclado y de 500 dólares. En su descargo hay que recordar que Apple rebajó el precio pocos meses después ante sus débiles ventas iniciales.

Pero el mandamás de Microsoft cuenta también con otro hito en su gestión como el ‘megadividendo’ de 40.000 millones de dólares que la compañía pagó en 2004 y que convirtió a sus accionistas en los mejor pagados del planeta bursátil. No obstante, su generosa política de dividendos ha sido parte del declive del valor en bolsa de Microsoft, que ha llegado a perder más de dos tercios de su capitalización desde sus máximos del año 2000 hasta 2007. Como acierto, la evolución al alza de las ventas de la empresa en los últimos cinco años (gráfico), si bien con menor crecimiento que el mercado.

Los últimos grandes tropiezos de Ballmer

Pero lo que verdaderamente ha hecho daño a Ballmer ha sido el fracaso en cuatro de sus apuestas estratégicas en los últimos tres años. Por un lado, la operación de compra de Yahoo, por la que ofertó en 2010 la friolera de 40.000 millones de dólares. Por otro, la compra de AQuantitative, que llevó a Microsoft a realizar el mayor saneamiento de su historia con más de 6.000 millones de dólares.

En tercer lugar, el gigante del software apostó su presencia en el mercado ‘smartphone’ a los desarrollos de un tercero. En este caso, Ballmer firmó un acuerdo sin precedentes por el que pagaba 1.000 millones anuales a Nokia por el desarrollo de teléfonos con Windows Phone. Al frente del grupo finlandés, el canadiense Stephen Elop, ex directivo de Microsoft, que no ha terminado de levantar una cuota relevante de mercado con los Nokia Lumia.

El cuarto episodio es mucho más reciente. A finales del pasado mes de julio, Microsoft provisionó 900 millones de dólares por la perdida de valor de su stock de tabletas Surface, después de sólo unos meses antes despidiese a Steve Sinofsky, arquitecto de Windows 8 y uno de los candidatos más carimásticos entre los llamados a suceder a Ballmer al frente del grupo. Tras el anuncio de su retirada en menos de 12 meses, Sinofsky vuelve a las quinielas de una sucesión que estará en manos de un grupo de cuatro personas entre las que se encuentra el cofundador de Microsoft, Bill Gates.

Fuente: El legado de Ballmer al frente de Microsoft: sonoros fracasos y silenciosos aciertos

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